Projects can be large or small and involve one person or thousands of people. They can be done in one day or take years to complete. As described earlier, information technology projects involve using hardware, software, and/or networks to create a product, service, or result. Examples of information technology projects include the following:
A technician replaces ten laptops for a small department A small software development team adds a new feature to an internal software application for the finance departmentA college campus upgrades its technology infrastructure to provide wireless Internet access across the whole campus A cross-functional taskforce in a company decides what Voice-over-InternetProtocol (VoIP) system to purchase and how it will be implemented A company develops a new system to increase sales force productivity and customer relationship management A television network implements a system to allow viewers to vote for contestants and provide other feedback on programs The automobile industry develops a Web site to streamline procurement A government group develops a system to track child immunizations A large group of volunteers from organizations throughout the world develops standards for environmentally friendly or green ITGreen IT:
Simply defined, green IT or green computing involves developing and using computer resources in an efficient way to improve economic viability, social responsibility, and environmental impact. For example, government regulations now encourage organizations and IT departments to use lowemission building materials, recycle computing equipment, and use alternative energy and other green technologies. Unified communications:
The majority of organizations are expected to migrate from PBX (private branch exchange) to IP (Internet protocol) telephony in the next three years. Business process modeling: Enterprise and process architects, senior developers, and business process analysts must work together to help organizations effectively use IT to improve processes. Business process modeling (BPM) suites are expected to fill a critical role as a compliment to service-oriented architecture (SOA).
Virtualization 2.0: Virtualization hides the physical characteristics of computing resources from their users, such as making a single server, operating system, application, or storage device appear to function as multiple virtual resources. Virtualization technologies can improve IT resource management and increase flexibility for adapting to changing requirements and workloads.
Virtualization 2.0 adds automation technologies so that resource efficiency can improve dramatically. Social software: Most students and professionals today use online social networking sites such as MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn, and YouTube to collaborate with others. Organizations will increasingly use social software technologies to augment traditional collaboration. 8